Verbos modales must y need

Estos verbos modales se usan cuando se habla de hacer algo necesario o innecesario. En esta lección aprenderemos el uso de los verbos modales must y need y los compararemos con otras frases verbales que comúnmente usamos en inglés hablado y escrito.

 

¿Cuándo se usan los verbos modales must, need, mustn’t y needn’t?

MUST + verb form base

(es necesario hacer algo)

MUSTN’T + verb form base

(es necesario NO hacer algo)

NEEDN’T + verb base form

(no necesitas hacerlo, pero puedes hacerlo si quieres)

Before the interview, you must fill out this form.

 

This is a construction site. You must wear a helmet.

 

This is our last chance to pass the test. We must study hard.

 

 

This is an exam. You mustn’t talk to anyone else.

 

We mustn’t make a lot of noise. Our neighbors are already sleeping.

 

We mustn’t fail this exam. This is our last chance to graduate.

You can order delivery if you want, but you needn’t order if you don’t want to.

 

We have a spare room. You needn’t stay in a hotel.

 

Sheila already knows what time we will meet. You needn’t call her.

 

En lugar de needn’t, se puede usar don’t / doesn’t need to.

You needn’t call her.

(needn’t + verb base form)

We needn’t hurry.

She needn’t call her mom.

You don’t need to call her.

(don’t need + to +verb base form)

We don’t need to hurry.

She doesn’t need to call her mom.

verbos modales must need

Diferencia entre needn’t  y needn’t have done

We needn’t hurry. We have a lot of time.

(no es necesario)

We needn’t have hurried. We had a lot of time.

(nos apresuramos aunque no era necesario)

Tomorrow’s Saturday. We needn’t go to bed early.

(no es necesario)

Tomorrow’s Saturday. We needn’t have gone to bed so early.

(nos acostamos temprano, pero no era necesario)

 

Diferencia entre didn’t have to  y  needn’t have done

didn’t need to do something

= no era necesario que lo hiciera y lo sabía en ese momento

(es posible usar didn’t have to)

needn’t have done something

= lo hice, pero se que no fue necesario

John didn’t need to study because he didn’t have any exams.

(no era necesario que John estudiara, así que no estudió)

In the end, they didn’t have any exams, John needn’t have studied.

(no era necesario que John estudiara, pero sí estudió)

The weather was nice. We didn’t need to bring an umbrella.

(no era necesario llevar un paraguas, así que no lo llevamos)

It didn’t rain. We needn’t have brought an umbrella.

(no era necesario llevar un paraguas, pero llevamos uno)

Ejercicios con los Verbos modales must y need

Escribe must, mustn’t o needn’t.

  1. We’re running out of time. We _______ go now.
  2. We still have half an hour before our class. We _______ hurry.
  3. You have a presentation tomorrow at 7 am. You ______ be late.
  4.  She doesn’t have enough time to make up her mind. She ______ decide now.
  5. This is a very special car for me. You _______ take good care of this.
  6. I am giving you my old car. You _____ buy a new one.
  7. I already cleaned the house. You _______ clean it.
  8. I haven’t replied to her email. I ______ reply to her as soon as possible.
  9. It was just one of those random emails. You ______ read it.
  10. We don’t have an exam this week. You _____ study.
  11. We have a long quiz this week. We ______ study.
  12. There are a lot of people helping us setting up the stage. You ______ come here to help.

Solución: 1 must, 2 needn’t, 3 mustn’t, 4 must, 5 must, 6 needn’t, 7 needn’t, 8 must, 9 needn’t, 10 needn’t, 11 must, 12 needn’t

Utilizando las situaciones, haz oraciones usando needn’t have + participio pasado del verbo.

  1. Sarah brought an umbrella because she thought it was going to rain, but it didn’t rain. __________________________________.
  2. My mother bought a lot of milk, but there were cartons of milk in the fridge. _____________________________________ .
  3. Helen sold her car. The following day, she won the lottery.________________________________________.
  4. I was running to get to the airport but my flight was delayed for an hour. __________________________________.
  5. John took his laptop to work, but there was no internet connection in his hotel.______________________________________.

Solución: 1 Sarah needn’t have brought an umbrella, 2 She needn’t have bought milk, 3 Helen needn’t have sold her car, 4 I needn’t have run, 5 John needn’t have taken his laptop

Escribe oraciones usando didn’t need to o needn’t have (done).

  1. Why did the children study? They didn’t have any exams this week.___________________________________.
  2. Why were you in a hurry? You still have plenty of time. ___________________________________.
  3. Why did she go to your apartment in the middle of the night? Why didn’t she wait until the morning___________________________________.

Solución: 1 The children didn’t have to study, 2 You needn’t have hurried, 3 She needn’t have gone to your apartment in the middle of the night

Ejercicio Speaking sobre los Verbos modales must y need

  1. Have you ever done something you needn’t have done? What was it?
  2. What must you do after this class?
  3. What are some things that you mustn’t do before you go to sleep?
  4. Who are some people that you must talk to before making big decisions in your life?
  5. If you are sick, is it a must to see a doctor right away?

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